Challenges of climate change and energy transition
The energy transition is key to addressing the challenges of climate change and effectively reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
What does the energy transition consist of?
Each country, city or region is supplied with energy through its energy model. This energy mix is the combination of different primary energy sources—carbon, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, biomass, water, solar energy and wind energy—which are used to supply the different energy needs of the population: industry, households and transport, among others.
Each energy model must guarantee universal access to energy sustainably and competitively; i.e., it must be accessible to everyone, whenever they need it, with the lowest environmental impact and a fair price. In turn, it must be capable of meeting the growing energy demand to guarantee economic development and growth in the coming years.
Each country or region has a different energy model, and several variables influence its design: proprietary energy resources (autochthonous), security of supply, energy generation capacity and environmental impact, among others. Considering these variables, each region must promote the most sustainable energy generation in economic, social and environmental terms.
At present, all energies play an important role in economic growth and the quality of people's lives, but it is necessary to change the model towards a low-carbon economy that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions to address climate change.
The energy transition is the change in the energy model that will lead us to the generation of low-carbon energy generation (decarbonisation), promoting primary energy sources with minimal generation of greenhouse gases.
This requires reducing energy generation from fossil fuels and promoting other, more sustainable energy sources.
According to their needs and resources, countries are undergoing their energy transition process, including new energy sources or improving the efficiency of the current ones. This evolution towards a new energy model must involve the lowest possible cost for society, ensuring that energy continues to be affordable for everyone and preserving the economy's competitiveness.